You are in the very first lesson in music theory. When I started music theory it was hard for me to find the best source. It was very hard for me to research and understand each and every topic. I took it as a challenge and I completed ABRSM Grade 5 theory with distinction. This theory series will never end, Music never ends.

Let’s get into the very basics of music theory.

The first thing you have to know is  “Pitch“. Pitches in music are named by using the first seven letters of the alphabet: A, B, C, D, E, F, and G. 

But we are starting from C and ending in B. Including the black notes there are twelve notes: C, C# or D♭, D, D# or E♭, E, F, F# or G♭, A, A# or B♭, B. Those twelve notes are called as chromatic notes.

Things to read before getting to the next topic.

  • Semitone or half step – The smallest distance between two pitch or the next pitch/ before pitch of the reference pitch.
  • Tone or whole step – Two semitone forms a tone.
  • # – It is called a sharp. Higher in pitch by one semitone (half step).
  • ♭ – It is called a flat. Lower in pitch by one semitone (half step).
  • X – It is called a double sharp. Higher in pitch by two semitones (i.e) a  tone.
  • ♭♭- It is called a double flat. Lower in pitch by two semitones (i.e) a tone.

Now let’s analyze this ” C, C# or D♭, D, D# or E♭, E, F, F# or G♭, A, A# or B♭, B ” You could have got confused by the sharps and flats in there. Let me explain it.

How do they have two different names for a single pitch? C# or D♭, D# or E♭, etc. Let us take C# or D#for example. Here that particular pitch is in between two pitch D and C. So when you start from C that pitch is a semitone ahead and if you start from D it is a semitone below. If you are moving ascending it is sharpened and if you are descending it is flattened.

Notes and Note Values

When a pitch is played it must have a time duration for it. It must have some time duration to be played. So have note and note value or length in music. Those are

Semibreve Or Whole Note – Its value is 4 Beats.

Minim or Half Note – Its value is 2 Beats.

Crochet or Quater Note – Its value is 1 beat.

Quaver or Eighth Note – Its value is 1/2 beat.

Semiquaver or Sixteenth Note – Its value is 1/4 beat.

It will be very easy to understand when you look at the tree structure.

Note Rest

We have note symbols and its values for a pitch to be played. Likewise, when we have to give a rest for a certain amount of period we have note rest.

Semibreve rest – Its rest value is 4 bests.

Minim Rest – It’s rest value is 2 beats.

Crochet Rest – It’s rest value is 1 beat.

Quaver Rest – It’s rest value is 1/2 beats.

Semiquaver Rest – It’s rest value is 1/8 beats.

These rest notes are used when a certain amount of silence has to be used.To learn more about rest ckeck wiki.


Let us continue the rudiments of music theory in the next lesson This lesson one plays the major part in understanding how music flows. This is applicable to all instruments. Music theory is the same for all instruments. Go through the lesson again and again for better understanding. check the other post where i had explained how to play the melody which goes in your head.