Everyone would have heard of the term harmony. What is harmony? And why it is very important in composition? Harmony in music is something stacking melodies or rhythmic elements one another. Yes, Staking melodies over one another. Harmonies sound better if all the parts which are been stacked do not clash each other. ( Basics of Music Theory )
There are four voices in music:
All the notes/melodies written for an instrument or for a singer will be written among the above four voices. For example melody for a male voice is written in the bass and for the female, it is written in Soprano. When it comes to the instrument like the violin, flute, the oboe is written in Soprano. Let us look more into each voice.
The soprano is considered as the top voice of all the others which ranges from C4 – G5. Soprano voice will have the hight frequency notes compared to the other voices. Usually, the melody lies on the soprano part all the other notes are written to harmonize well with the melody ( Soprano ) and bring out the required sounding. In Western Classical music, all the pieces are written mostly in four-part harmonies. There is a certain rule to write the four-part harmony where when the rule is followed without evening hearing the harmony it would suit the melody.
Harmony is created for a very bigger melody, Like for a movie scene of more than 3 minutes. The melody might be created first by the composer and then the harmonization is done. For each and every melody the harmony must accompany so with this rule we could write the part without even playing and hearing the melody.
In the above sheet music, all four parts have been mentioned separately. As we know the Soprano part is the melody part here and all the other three ( Alto, Tenor, Bass ) are the accompanying notes/melody. The Alto, Tenor, and Bass are not written as per hearing in most cases. It is written with the rules of writing four-part harmony. There will be so many misleading notes occurring when it is not written without following the rules like not using the proper inversion, Consecutive 5th, and octaves.
Music is all about how well notes are harmonized and how well it sounds with each other. Practicing chords will give the idea of how to harmonize a melody and also will help in composing now music.